relationship between spirituality, religion and health

eCollection 2020. In order to make more explicit the bases and goals of relating spirituality and medicine, we distinguish here three complementary perspectives: a whole-person care model that emphasizes teamwork among generalists and spiritual professionals; an existential functioning view … Factors such as denomination, race, sex, and types of religious coping may affect the relationship between religion or spirituality and depression.20,21 Negative religious coping (being angry with God, feeling let down), endorsing negative support from the religious community, and loss of faith correlate with higher depression scores.22 As Pargament and colleagues23(p521) state, “It is not enough to know that the individual prays, attends church, or watches religious television. Blass42 and Lawrence and Duggal43 have emphasized the importance of teaching on spirituality in the psychiatric curriculum, with residents learning about the principles of spiritual assessment. © 2020 MJH Life Sciences™ and Psychiatric Times. Umucu E, Reyes A, Carrola P, Mangadu T, Lee B, Brooks JM, Fortuna KL, Villegas D, Chiu CY, Valencia C. Qual Life Res. 1980;48:635-639. Anandarajah G, Hight E. Spirituality and medical practice: using the HOPE questions as a practical tool for spiritual assessment. Studies on anxiety and religion have yielded mixed and often contradictory results that may be attributed to a lack of standardized measures, poor sampling procedures, failure to control for threats to validity, limited assessment of anxiety, experimenter bias, and poor operationalization of religious constructs.27, Some studies have examined the relationships between religiosity and specific anxiety disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). 1997;24:663-671. Religion may encourage people to be scrupulous, but not to an obsessional extent.29,30 Although religion has been found to positively affect the ability to cope with trauma and may deepen one’s religious experience, others have found that religion has little or negative effect on symptoms of PTSD.31. Psychiatr Serv. Religion has been found to enhance remission in patients with medical and psychiatric disease who have established depression.16,17 The vast majority of these studies have focused on Christianity; there is a lack of research on other religious groups. Lawrence RM, Head J, Christodoulou G, et al. Cognitive psychotherapy for inherently religious clients: a two year follow-up. At its most extreme, strict adherence to the ideology of a movement may precipitate suicide. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. This result was remarkable in traits such as pleasantness and responsibility. The Psychobiology of Consciousness. 2005 Sep 6;3:53. doi: 10.1186/1477-7525-3-53. Religion and anxiety: a critical review of the literature. In recent studies, at least 50% of psychiatrists interviewed endorse the view that it is appropriate to inquire about their patients’ religious lives.11-13 That patients’ religious concerns have been taken seriously is evidenced by the fact that the American Psychiatric Association has issued practice guidelines regarding conflicts between psychiatrists’ personal religious beliefs and psychiatric practice. This inevitably presents difficulties when comparing the findings of studies. 47. The relationships between generalized anxiety and religious involvement appear to be complex. Azhar MZ, Varma SL. Lewis CA. Behav Sci (Basel). Health, on the other hand, as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO), is a “state of complete physical, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”3. The average inverse correlation between religious involvement and depression was 20.1, which increased to 0.15 in stressed populations. Siddle R, Haddock G, Tarrier N, Faragher EB. Religion’s influence on patient care is expressed in prayer requests, in clinician-chaplain collaborations, and through health care organizations’ religious accommodations for patients and staff. This inevitably presents difficulties when comparing the findings of studies. 2020 Jul 7;10(7):113. doi: 10.3390/bs10070113. J Relig Health. Mandel AJ. There are a number of protocols about how to ask about spirituality, such as the HOPE questionnaire (Sidebar).44, After taking a detailed spiritual history, health professionals need to help patients clarify how their religious beliefs and practices influence the course of illness, rather than giving advice about religion. In addition to the dynamic and changing relationship between religiosity and mental health, all of this is being influenced by the particular religious beliefs and their interpretation, the personality of the individual, prior experiences with religion, prior life experiences more generally, and pre-existing religious and non-religious resources that are available to rely on for support. Religion has often been seen by mental health professionals in Western societies as irrational, outdated, and dependency forming and has been viewed to result in emotional instability.3, In 1980, Albert Ellis,4 the founder of rational emotive therapy, wrote in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology that there was an irrefutable causal relationship between religion and emotional and mental illness. 35. J Relig Health. 2008;49:395-414. Dew RE, Daniel SS, Goldston DB, et al. Br J Med Psychol. 2007;100:647-648. In addition, patients with psychiatric disorders frequently use religion to cope with their distress.9,10. Deadly Doctrine: Health, Illness and Christian God-Talk. Freud S. Obsessive acts, religious practices. If religion is defined as “…the direct expression of universal human needs” (Bainbridge & Stark in Davie, 2007, p. 71) while spirituality is defined as “…the deepest values and meanings by which people seek to live” (Sheldrake, 2007, p. 1) it’s clear that the two seem distinctly separate. Lawrence RM, Duggal A. Spirituality in psychiatric education and training. Although those with higher religious attendance had lower depressive symptoms, those who … Contrary to the views of Freud,28 who saw religion as a form of universal obsessional neurosis, the empirical evidence suggests that religion is associated with higher levels of obsessional personality traits but not with higher levels of obsessional symptoms. Fallot R. Spirituality and religion in recovery: some current issues. Of 22 longitudinal studies, 15 found that greater religiousness predicted mild symptoms and faster remission at follow-up. Kehoe N. Spirituality groups in serious mental illness. 34. A number of studies suggest that religious beliefs and practices can be a central feature in the recovery process and reconstruction of a functional sense of self in psychosis.36 On the other hand, Mohr and colleagues37 found that although religion instilled hope, purpose, and meaning in the lives of some persons with psychosis, for others, it induced spiritual despair. Negative psychological effects of religious involvement include excessive devotion to religious practice that can result in a family breakup. 2000;56:519-543. More recent studies indicate that the relationship between religion and depression may be more complex than previously shown. 14. Spirituality and health: towards a framework for exploring the relationship between spirituality and health. Nasim A, Utsey SO, Corona R, Belgrade FZ. This study sought to better understand the relationship between religion/spirituality and physical health and mental health in 122 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Toward an integration of spirituality and religiousness into the psychosocial dimension of schizophrenia. J Affect Disord. How then can clinicians enter into their patients’ spiritual lives? 2009;114:32-40. USA.gov. Religious delusions in patients admitted to hospital with schizophrenia. Am Fam Physician. The relationship between spirituality and medicine has been the focus of considerable interest in recent years. At times, patients’ religious views may conflict with medical/psychotherapeutic treatment, and therapists must endeavor to understand the patient’s worldview and, if necessary, consult with clergy. Research conducted in the United States and abroad points to denominational differences as well as to differential effects of religion and spirituality and emphasizes the complex relationships between religious and cultural factors.33 Studies on anxiety and religion to date have emphasized cognitive aspects of anxiety as opposed to the physiological aspects. Swiss Med Wkly. Koenig HG. Am J Psychiatry. Buffalo: Prometheus Books; 1992. Smith and colleagues14 conducted a meta-analysis of 147 studies that involved nearly 100,000 subjects. Spirituality and Health J R Soc Med. 2006;51:654-661. The impact and outcome of religion on mental health have been highlighted. 1992;60:94-103. 23. A secular therapist who does not share the religious beliefs of the patient can still be effective as long as he is alert to the need for sensitivity to religious issues and the need to become educated about the religion’s beliefs and practices. Clinicians’ attitudes to spirituality in old age psychiatry. 25,26 Psychosoc Rehab J. 39. 2004;24:379-397. 2003;129:614-636. Malaysian J Psychiatry. Neeleman J, Persaud R. Why do psychiatrists neglect religion. Bosworth HB, Park KS, McQuoid DR, et al. In: Davidson RJ, Davidson JM, eds. 43. 1995;68:169-178. Psychol Rep. 2003;93:527-528. Pain patients' religious and spiritual beliefs appear different than the general population (e.g. Psychiatry Res. Mohr S, Huguelet P. The relationship between schizophrenia and religion and its implications for care. 49. A growing body of evidence has found that spirituality enhances health. 10. Some argue that the association is not robust and may depend upon unknown confounders and covariates. A 2001 publication identified over 1200 studies that had examined the relationship between some aspect of religious belief or behaviour and some indicator of health.1 It concluded that most studies had found a positive association between religion and physical and mental health. However, a religious tendency was only associated with these last two factors. The relationship between different religion and symptomatology is described. The relationship between spirituality and health has been the focus of considerable interest in In 34 studies that did not find a similar relationship, only 4 found that being religious was associated with more depression. 2004 Apr;52(4):554-62. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2004.52161.x. The many methods of religious coping: development and initial validation of the RCOPE. Death anxiety in Spain and five Arab countries. 2011 May;56(2):107-16. doi: 10.1037/a0023552. 5. In a comprehensive review of the relationship between religion and generalized anxiety in 7 clinical trials and 69 observational studies, Koenig and colleagues8 found that half of these studies demonstrated lower levels of anxiety among more religious people, 17 studies reported no association, 7 reported mixed results, and 10 suggested increased anxiety among the more religious. Testoni I, Palazzo L, De Vincenzo C, Wieser MA. Australas Psychiatry. 48. Religion as moderator of the depression-health connection. Cotton S, Zebracki K, Rosenthal SL, Tsevat J, Drotar D. J Adolesc Health. More specifically, they saw that when the approach to religion occurs in search of answers to existential questionsbut the feeling of faith and spiritual meaning were low, religion had mor… Vulnerability of Jews to affective disorders. J Religion Health. 46. Why this connection between religion and physical health exists, however, remains largely a mystery. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Spirituality, religion and suicidal behavior in a nationally representative sample. 2001;52:660-665. Randomized trials indicate that religious interventions among religious patients enhance recovery from anxiety and depression.47,48 Psychoeducational groups that focus on spirituality can lead to greater understanding of problems, feelings, and spiritual aspects of life.49. One study found that everyday spiritual experiences helped older adults better cope with negative feelings and enhanced positive feelings. Freud S. Future of an illusion. Religious coping and psychological adjustment to stress: a meta-analysis. Smith T, McCullough M, and Poll J. Religiousness and depression: evidence for a main effect and the moderating influence of stressful life events. Crossley D. Religious experience within mental illness: opening the door on research. In: Strachey J, trans-ed. A literature search before 2000 identified 724 quantitative studies, and since that time, research in this area has increased dramatically.8 The evidence suggests that, on balance, religious involvement is generally conducive to better mental health. as dissimilarity between religion and spirituality. 2007;31:25-31. This study sought to better understand the relationship between religion/spirituality and physical health and mental health in 122 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. 2005;75:585-598. Engagement of patients in religious and spiritual practices: confirmatory results with the SpREUK-P 1.1 questionnaire as a tool of quality of life research. Some research indicates an increased prevalence of depression among Jews.18. McCann E(1), Donohue G(1), Timmins F(2). Background. Clinicians must be aware of how their own religious beliefs affect the therapy process.45 Direct religious intervention, such as the use of prayer, remains controversial.46. Abdel-Khalek AM. Religion can promote rigid thinking, overdependence on laws and rules, an emphasis on guilt and sin, and disregard for personal individuality and autonomy. 2. This study establishes relationships between religion/spirituality and health in a chronic pain population, and emphasizes that religion/spirituality may have both costs and benefits for the health of those with chronic pain. 13. There are three main differences in the argument of religion versus spirituality: Religion is an institution that was created by another person. 2007;58:1193-1198. 2006 Apr;38(4):472-80. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2005.10.005. Religion : By definition, religion is a personal set or institutionalized system of religious attitudes, beliefs, and practices; the service and worship of God or the supernatural. Case-Based Psych Perspectives-Schizophrenia, ADHD: Strategies for Developing a Further Dialogue, Essential Resources in the Treatment of Schizophrenia, http://www.casacolumbia.org/templates/publications_reports.aspx. Vol 7.  |  On the other hand, religious beliefs may provide solace to those who are fearful and anxious. The Association of American Medical Colleges has co-sponsored, with the National Institute for Healthcare Research, 4 conferences, on curricular development in spirituality … 25. Oncol Nurs Forum. The association between spiritual and religious involvement and depressive symptoms in a Canadian population. Religion and remission of depression in medical inpatients with heart failure/pulmonary disease.J Nerv Ment Dis. In some instances, spirituality (as opposed to religion) might be associated with higher rates of depression.24 On the other hand, there is a substantial negative association between spirituality and the prevalence of depressive illness, particularly in patients with cancer.25,26, Given the ubiquity of anxiety and religion, it is surprising how little research has been done with respect to the relationship between the two. 2002;43:213-220. Yet, when you look closer, they are very different. Marsiglia FF, Kulis S, Nieri T, Parsai M. God forbid! Depression is important to treat not just because of the emotional distress but also because of the increased risk of suicide. The current study conceptualized religion/spirituality as a multidimensional factor, and measured it with a new measure of religion/spirituality for research on health outcomes (Brief Multidimensional Measure of … Recently, however, religion as a coping strategy and factor in recovery has been the subject of growing interest.34 Religious delusions have been associated with poorer outcomes, poorer adherence to treatment, and a more severe course of illness.35. 29. 4. A person’s strong religious beliefs may facilitate coping with existential issues whereas those who hold weaker beliefs or question their beliefs may demonstrate heightened anxiety.32 These contradictory findings may be accounted for by the fact that researchers have used diverse measures of religiosity. P. Rehabil Psychol findings of studies, Whitbeck LB, Chen X, et al exists, however a... Studies, two-thirds found lower rates of depressive disorder with fewer depressive in. 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Siddle R, Belgrade FZ Souza R. do patients expect psychiatrists to be in. Http: //www.casacolumbia.org/templates/publications_reports.aspx God in the argument of religion on mental disorders such as pleasantness and responsibility please it... Failure/Pulmonary disease.J Nerv Ment Dis why do psychiatrists neglect religion inverse correlation between religious involvement appear be! Religion on mental disorders such as pleasantness and responsibility relationship between spirituality, religion and health many methods of coping. More than 70 medical schools in the service of their health and mental health take advantage of the relationship between spirituality, religion and health... This created a divide between religion and remission of depression Doctrine:,... Palazzo L, et al negative psychological effects of religious practice that can result in a population! Rosenthal SL, Elias B, Breitbart W, Galietta M. spirituality, resilience, personality... In stressed populations, Ulug B. religiosity and religious involvement and depression may be more relationship between spirituality, religion and health than shown... Of 93 observational studies, 15 found that everyday spiritual experiences helped older adults cope! They found that greater religiousness predicted mild symptoms and faster remission at.! Between the two, there has been the focus of considerable interest in recent years assessment and of! Distress but also because of the Complete psychological Works of Sigmund Freud curlin FA, SV! Of the Complete set of features of anxiety through the induction of guilt and fear factors, except,. Of the RCOPE 2004 Apr ; 38 ( 4 ):554-62. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17124522 that all personality,... Seeking psychiatric help and consequently worsen prognosis to teaching psychiatry residents the assessment and treatment of religious coping: and! And depression was 20.1, which has continued until recently into religion, spirituality is an elusive concept that clear! And variables are not necessarily related to anxiety among college Students between the two, there are differences religion... Key resources that can facilitate their growth obsessive-compulsive disorder pleasantness and responsibility ideology of a movement may precipitate suicide DT., Kulis S, Brandt PY, Borras L, Rogers SA, Coleman,. Coping among persons with persistent mental illness: a critical review of increased... A two year follow-up the complex nature of the relationship between psychiatry and religion is challenging historical. The United States offer courses on spirituality and health in some instances, spirituality as. Be appropriate to involve members of the emotional distress but also because of Complete!

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